In the last weekend, the Taejon Substance disaster, which caused the whole country to be sorrowful, usually attracted too many people in a narrow space, causing people in trapped in the crowd to move, and those who fell into mistakes. It occurs when it causes difficulty.
It is not uncommon for such an accident when many crowds gather, and once this situation, it becomes very difficult for an individual to get out of danger or to control the situation. This is why experts emphasize thorough preliminary inspections, plans, and crowd control experts ahead of large events.
■ Powerful crowds that are powerful enough to bend iron railings
People who participate in large events move like a fluid and create a ‘crowd turbulence’ phenomenon. At this time, people who have moved in line are getting closer to each other, especially in the front rows of the group. However, if the distance is too close to the people around you, it becomes difficult to know what happens around you.
If the crowds are narrower or have walls or walls around, the risk of pressure will be increased. In this situation, even if people fall or stand up, the pressure is too big to lead to a disaster. The area where Taejon accidents occurred was a narrow alleyway when several adults passed by side.
Professor Kiss Steel, a professor at the University of Steel, who studies crowd safety issues, introduces this phenomenon as ‘crowd surge’ or ‘crowd crush’ in the Washington Post on the 29th (local time). It can happen when there is something that falls into each other in a cold limited space. If one person falls, it falls down and is a kind of ‘domino effect’ that cannot be raised or escaped again.
This is a different phenomenon from the crowd stampede, where people are running to some extent in that they are stuck.
In this place, the body is under strong pressure and does not have a space for the diaphragm, so it suffers from difficulty breathing. Professor Steel introduced that at the book, Crowd Safety and Crowd Risk Analysis, the power of about 4,500 Newton (about 454 kg) was applied at the crowd exploding site as the iron railing handle was bent. In 1971, in the Box football field accident in Glasgow, England, a person accumulated 3 m high, and the person on the floor estimated that it would have received a power of up to 4,000 Newton (about 408 kg) on the chest.
This was similar to the recent death of 130 people at the Indonesian soccer field, but also during the Castro World Festival, where 10 people died in Texas.
■ Large events will increase after the corona 19 defense easing… Preliminary planning important
Mehdi Mus side Researcher, who studies crowd behavior at the Max Planck Research Institute, Germany, said in the Taejon disaster, If you watch the video, there are 8-10 people in 1㎡, he said. Typical crowd accidents.
If the situation reaches a certain level, it will hardly be used, and this is not solved by putting more police, he said. So prior plan and control are important. In the Mecca, where the crowd accidents occur frequently during the pilgrimage period, only one-way can be controlled.
However, the Taejon disaster did not have the organizers, such as a large sports event or a music concert, but it was not easy to control people as they naturally gathered randomly.
As the Corona 19th Street is released, the large-scale cluster events that have been suppressed will continue to increase, which requires more preparation for such crowd accidents. Dr. John Fruit, a public safety expert, presents a ‘FIST model’ based on the risk of events gathered by the crowd. It is to evaluate risks and prepare for measures based on the power of the crowd (I), the space (I), the space (S) and the period of the incident (T).
He emphasized that real-time communication of information, especially information that can be recognized correctly, is important. In the Taejon case, there was a situation in which the situation was shouted as ‘push’ in the front row without knowing each other’s situation.